- “Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag,” bioRxiv preprint published January 31, 2020 and withdrawn February 2, 2020. More context here.
- “Epidemiological and clinical features of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in China,” medRxiv preprint published February 11, 2020 and withdrawn February 21, 2020. More context here.
- “Chinese medical staff request international medical assistance in fighting against COVID-19,” letter in The Lancet published February 24, 2020 and retracted February 26, 2020. More context here.
- “Potential False-Positive Rate Among the ‘Asymptomatic Infected Individuals’ in Close Contacts of COVID-19 Patients,” paper in the Chinese Journal of Epidemiology published March 5, 2020 and retracted a few days later. More context here.
- “An epidemiological investigation of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases through aerosol－borne transmission by public transport,” published in early March in Practical Preventive Medicine and retracted sometime in mid-April. More context here.
- “First viral replication of Covid-19 identified in the peritoneal dialysis fluid,” published in Bulletin de la Dialyse à Domicile on April 13, 2020, retracted on April 20, 2020. Our coverage here.
- “Hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin: a potential interest in reducing in-hospital morbidity due to COVID-19 pneumonia (HI-ZY-COVID)?” preprint published on medRxiv, May 11, 2020, withdrawn on May 20, 2020. Our coverage here.
- “From SARS-CoV to Wuhan 2019-nCoV Outbreak: Similarity of Early Epidemic and Prediction of Future Trends,” preprint posted on bioRxiv, January 25, 2020, withdrawn January 28, 2020.
- “Analysis of Ten Microsecond simulation data of SARS-CoV-2 dimeric main protease,” preprint posted on bioRxiv, April 12, 2020, withdrawn April 16, 2020.
- “Computational analysis suggests putative intermediate animal hosts of the SARS-CoV-2,” preprint posted on bioRxiv, April 5, 2020, withdrawn April 20, 2020.
- “Mental health status and coping strategy of medical workers in China during The COVID-19 outbreak,” preprint posted on medRxiv, February 25, 2020, withdrawn March 7, 2020.
- “Mortality of a pregnant patient diagnosed with COVID-19: A case report with clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings,” published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease on April 11, 2020, retracted on May 2, 2020. Our coverage here.
- “Effectiveness of Surgical and Cotton Masks in Blocking SARS–CoV-2: A Controlled Comparison in 4 Patients,” published on April 6, 2020 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, retracted on June 1, 2020.
- “Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis,” published in The Lancet on May 22, 2020, subjected to an expression of concern on June 2 ,and retracted on June 4.
- “Cardiovascular Disease, Drug Therapy, and Mortality in Covid-19,” published in the New England Journal of Medicine on May 1, 2020, subjected to an expression of concern on June 2, and retracted on June 4.
- “Corona Virus Killed by Sound Vibrations Produced by Thali or Ghanti: A Potential Hypothesis,” published in Journal of Molecular Pharmaceuticals and Regulatory Affairs, dates of publication and retraction unknown.
- “Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of 34 Children With 2019 Novel Coronavirus Infection in Shenzhen,” published in Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi on February 17, 2020, date of retraction unknown.
- “COVID-19 Emergency Responders in FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research,” published sometime after April 6, 2020 in Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, date of retraction unknown.
- “Managing college operations during the coronavirus outbreak,” published April 10, 2020 in Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, date of retraction unknown.
- “Ivermectin in COVID-19 Related Critical Illness,” posted in April 2020 on SSRN, retracted sometime in May. Reporting from The Scientist here.
- “Usefulness of Ivermectin in COVID-19 Illness,” posted on April 19, 2020 on SSRN, retracted sometime thereafter.
- “Can Your AI Differentiate Cats from Covid-19? Sample Efﬁcient Uncertainty Estimation for Deep Learning Safety,” reportedly to be presented at the ICML 2020 Workshop on Uncertainty and Robustness in Deep Learning in July, 2020, removed sometime before June 17, 2020. Improbable Research discusses it here.
- Patterns of COVID-19 Mortality and Vitamin D: An Indonesian Study, published on SSRN on April 30, 2020. Retraction date unknown. (Hat tip to HealthNerd)
- “SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes through its spike protein-mediated membrane fusion,” published in Cellular & Molecular Immunology April 7, 2020, subject to an expression of concern in early June 2020, retracted July 10, 2020. Our coverage here.
- “Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: why might they be hazardous?” published in The Lancet May 22, 2020, retracted and replaced July 9, 2020. Our coverage here.
- “5G Technology and induction of coronavirus in skin cells,” published in Biological Regulators & Homeostatic Agents on July 16, 2020, withdrawn on July 24, 2020. Our coverage here.
- “Lung disease severity, Coronary Artery Calcium, Coronary inflammation and Mortality in Coronavirus Disease 2019.” medRxiv preprint posted May 6, 2020 and withdrawn June 20, 2020.
- “Smoking Prevalence is Low in Symptomatic Patients Admitted for COVID-19.” medRxiv preprint posted May 10, 2020 and withdrawn June 13, 2020.
- “Psychiatric Predictors of COVID-19 Outcomes in a Skilled Nursing Facility Cohort” medRxiv preprint posted May 26, 2020, and withdrawn June 21, 2020.
- “Treatment Response to Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, and Antibiotics for Moderate COVID 19: A First Report on the Pharmacological Outcomes from South Korea” medRxiv preprint posted May 18, 2020, and withdrawn June 14, 2020.
- “No Deleterious Effect of Lockdown Due to COVID-19 Pandemic on Glycaemic Control, Measured by Glucose Monitoring, in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes,” published on May 12, 2020 in Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, retracted July 27, 2020. Our coverage here.
- “SARS-CoV-2 was Unexpectedly Deadlier than Push-scooters: Could Hydroxychloroquine be the Unique Solution?” published on August 15, 2020 in Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, retracted August 16, 2020. Our coverage here.
- “Experimental Treatment with Favipiravir for COVID-19: An Open-Label Control Study,” published in Engineering on March 18, 2020 and temporarily retracted, now back online, all without explanation.
- “Should sexual practices be discouraged during the pandemic?” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, publication date unknown (accepted April 16), retracted on or around May 11, and replaced on an unknown date. Our coverage here.
- “An effective protective equipment to use in the vaginal delivery of the pregnant women with suspected/diagnosed COVID-19: Delivery Table Shield,” published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology on June 15, 2020, withdrawn sometime before June 25, 2020. Our coverage here.
Expressions of concern
- “Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial,” published in International Journal of Microbial Agents on March 20, 2020. More context here and here.
Retraction Watch does not draw a distinction between withdrawal and retraction, because journals that have done so have typically done it to justify not saying anything about why a paper was retracted, and to sometimes make a paper disappear without a trace. Richard Sever, the co-founder of bioRxiv and medRxiv, asked that we include a comment from him about how the processes for withdrawing preprints and retracting journal articles may differ: Journals may retract a paper at the authors’ request and/or if the editors identify fundamental flaws that would have precluded acceptance if spotted during review. [RW: Note that some journals insist that they cannot make such moves without authors’ permission.] A preprint is usually withdrawn only at an authors’ request. A preprint server will not typically withdraw a flawed preprint against the wishes of the author, since the server made no claim to have peer-reviewed and certified the scientific content in the first place. At the same time, preprint servers *will* withdraw a preprint against the authors’ wishes in instances of fraud, ethics violations, dangerous material, or legal issues. It is thus the nature of preprints that there will be some that contain errors but are not withdrawn and would not appear in the above list. [RW: The same is, of course, true of some papers in peer-reviewed journals.]